[254] Among Kolkata's widely circulated Bengali-language newspapers are Anandabazar Patrika, Bartaman, Ei Samay Sangbadpatra, Sangbad Pratidin, Aajkaal, Dainik Statesman and Ganashakti. Kolkata has been known to start the culture of eating out among Indians. [21] One unorganised group, roadside hawkers, generated business worth ₹ 87.72 billion (US$ 2 billion) in 2005. [26][27] Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, which was consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Crowds throng to Kolkata’s book fairs, art exhibitions, and concerts, and there is a lively trading of polemics on walls, which has led to Kolkata being dubbed the “city of posters.”. But the British called it Calcutta. North Kolkata is the oldest part of the city. The city receives 2,107 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight exposure occurring in April. [267] Mohun Bagan A.C., one of the oldest football clubs in Asia, is the only organisation to be dubbed a "National Club of India". Safest city Kolkata. [58] Recent estimates of the economy of Kolkata's metropolitan area have ranged from $60 to $150 billion (PPP GDP), and have ranked it third-most productive metro area of India. Reportedly, the market serves the best Chinese in the city. [172] The city has witnessed a steady increase in the number of registered vehicles; 2002 data showed an increase of 44% over a period of seven years. When compared to the other metro cities, Kolkata is said to be the most economical city. Almost all of Kolkata's taxis are antiquated Hindustan Ambassadors by make; newer air-conditioned radio taxis are in service as well. [40] The city underwent rapid industrial growth starting in the early 1850s, especially in the textile and jute industries; this encouraged British companies to massively invest in infrastructure projects, which included telegraph connections and Howrah railway station. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation, or KMC, oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 16 boroughs, which together encompass 144 wards. [46][47] Coinciding with the war, millions starved to death during the Bengal famine of 1943 due to a combination of military, administrative, and natural factors. The city's main bus terminals are located at Esplanade and Babughat. The city is well known to do many things for the first time in the history of India. [280] The Calcutta Polo Club is considered the oldest extant polo club in the world. [154] [159] Kolkata has five long-distance railway stations, located at Howrah (the largest railway complex in India), Sealdah, Chitpur, Shalimar and Santragachi, which connect Kolkata by rail to most cities in West Bengal and to other major cities in India. [174] The Kolkata Metro has somewhat eased traffic congestion, as has the addition of new roads and flyovers. [ˈkɔliˌkata]), the Bengali name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was eventually established; the other two villages were Sutanuti and Govindapur.[21]. [242][243] The Academy of Fine Arts and other art galleries hold regular art exhibitions. Kolkata is known for its varied street-food and a stroll down the Maidan area during evening hours won’t disappoint you. According to a United Nations Development Programme report, its wind and cyclone zone is "very high damage risk". However, Calcutta had always been pronounced Kolkata by Bengali speakers. Bengal's large repertoire of seafood dishes includes various preparations of ilish, a fish that is a favourite among Calcuttans. Shopping at the Terreti Market . [125]:47 The infant mortality rate in Kolkata was 41 per 1,000 live births, and the mortality rate for children under five was 49 per 1,000 live births. [175] The Kolkata–Delhi and Kolkata–Chennai prongs of the Golden Quadrilateral, and National Highway 12 start from the city. The agency overseeing the latter, the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority, is responsible for the statutory planning and development of greater Kolkata. [58], Spread roughly north–south along the east bank of the Hooghly River, Kolkata sits within the lower Ganges Delta of eastern India approximately 75 km (47 mi) west of the international border with Bangladesh; the city's elevation is 1.5–9 m (5–30 ft). [125]:61, According to the Indian 2005 National Family Health Survey, only a small proportion of Kolkata households were covered under any health scheme or health insurance. [58] From the 1960s to the late 1990s, several factories were closed and businesses relocated. It is called CITY OF JOY because Fun Food and Festivity all is found there. The winter months, from about the end of November to the end of February, are pleasant and rainless; fogs and mists occasionally reduce visibility in the early morning hours at this season, as also do thick blankets of smog in the evenings. For other uses, see, The Kolkata metropolitan area also includes portions of. Factories, motor vehicles, and thermal-generating stations, which burn coal, are primary causes of this pollution, but monsoon winds act as cleansing agents by bringing in fresh air masses and also hastening the removal of water pollution. (2011) 4,486,679; urban agglom., 14,112,536. [182][183], As of 2011[update], the health care system in Kolkata consists of 48 government hospitals, mostly under the Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, and 366 private medical establishments;[184] these establishments provide the city with 27,687 hospital beds. [125]:23 Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding and working with the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata—an organisation "whose primary task was to love and care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after". [125]:41 The total fertility rate in Kolkata was 1.4, The lowest among the eight cities surveyed. Each borough has a committee of councillors, each of whom is elected to represent a ward. This metropolitan city, formerly famous as Calcutta is a city is by the bank of the Hoogly River. The Victoria Memorial, a place of interest in Kolkata, has a museum documenting the city's history. Kolkata houses many premier research institutes like Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Bose Institute, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta, All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), S.N. [206] The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences is one of India's autonomous law schools,[207][208] and the Indian Statistical Institute is a public research institute and university. [198][199] Schools in Kolkata follow the "10+2+3" plan. [121] The Kolkata police district registered 15,510 Indian Penal Code cases in 2010, the 8th-highest total in the country. [130] The Kolkata Municipal Corporation was ranked 1st out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. In 1793, ruling power of the Nawabs were abolished and East India company took complete control of the city and the province. Being one of India's major city and the largest city in eastern and north-eastern India, Kolkata hosts diplomatic missions of many countries such as Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Canada, People's Republic of China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States. [33] A force of Company soldiers (sepoys) and British troops led by Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year. [204] An Institute of National Importance, BESU was converted to India's first IIEST. What is Kolkata famous for? [66] Suburban areas in the Kolkata metropolitan area incorporate parts of the following districts: North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly and Nadia. [145][146] Fire services are handled by the West Bengal Fire Service, a state agency. Following independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the centre of Indian commerce, culture, and politics, suffered many decades of political violence and economic stagnation.[19]. His warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked; he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta. [76] Winter lasts for roughly two-and-a-half months, with seasonal lows dipping to 9–11 °C (48–52 °F) in December and January. The average annual rainfall is about 64 inches (1,625 mm). Public transport is provided by the Kolkata Suburban Railway, the Kolkata Metro, trams, rickshaws, taxis and buses. [1], In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. Bengal Engineering and Science University (BESU) is the second oldest engineering institution of the country located in Howrah. [274][275] Kolkata has the Indian Premier League franchise Kolkata Knight Riders; the Cricket Association of Bengal, which regulates cricket in West Bengal, is also based in the city. Kolkata hosts the headquarters of three major public-sector banks: Allahabad Bank, UCO Bank, and the United Bank of India; and a private bank Bandhan Bank. [54] In the period 1977–2011, West Bengal was governed from Kolkata by the Left Front, which was dominated by the Communist Party of India (CPM). [132] The city has an apolitical titular post, that of the Sheriff of Kolkata, which presides over various city-related functions and conferences. [228]:99[231] Chitpur locality of the city houses multiple production companies of jatra, a tradition of folk drama popular in rural Bengal. [141][failed verification] Roughly 95% of the 4,000 tonnes of refuse produced daily by the city is transported to the dumping grounds in Dhapa, which is east of the town. Omissions? [255] As the largest trading centre in East India, Kolkata has several high-circulation financial dailies, including The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Business Line and Business Standard. Kolkata is the birth place of fusion … Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, and the East India Company retook it the following year. As in the rest of India, cricket is popular in Kolkata and is played on grounds and in streets throughout the city. Among scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Four Nobel laureates and two Nobel Memorial Prize winners are associated with the city. [45] Calcutta continued to be a centre for revolutionary organisations associated with the Indian independence movement. The north suburban areas like Dum Dum, Baranagar, Belgharia, Sodepur, Khardaha, New Barrackpore, Madhyamgram, Barrackpore, Barasat etc. [265][266] Calcutta Football League, which was started in 1898, is the oldest football league in Asia. [131], The Kolkata Port Trust, an agency of the central government, manages the city's river port. Reserve Bank of India has its eastern zonal office in Kolkata, and India Government Mint, Kolkata is one of the four mints in India. Science City in Kolkata is Indian subcontinent’s largest science center. Two planned townships in the greater Kolkata region are Bidhannagar, also known as Salt Lake City and located north-east of the city; and Rajarhat, also called New Town and located east of Bidhannagar. [284][285] The Calcutta South Club is a venue for national and international tennis tournaments; it held the first grass-court national championship in 1946. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [193][194] Kolkata is one of the districts in India with a high number of people with AIDS; it has been designated a district prone to high risk. [236] Coupled with social reforms led by Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Vivekananda and others, this constituted a major part of the Bengal Renaissance. Also known as the City of Joy, it is … The highest monthly rainfall total occurs in July and August. [205] The Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, which was the first of the Indian Institutes of Management, was established in 1961 at Joka, a locality in the south-western suburbs. [33] Per the 1765 Treaty of Allahabad following the battle of Buxar, East India company was appointed imperial tax collector of the Mughal emperor in the province of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, while Mughal-appointed Nawabs continued to rule the province. Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Kolkata include The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express and the Asian Age. Kolkata, considered the leading centre of rugby union in India, gives its name to the oldest international tournament in rugby union, the Calcutta Cup. According to some, Kalikata is derived from the Bengali word Kalikshetra, meaning “Ground of (the goddess) Kali.” Some say the city’s name derives from the location of its original settlement on the bank of a canal (khal). and the Mohammedan Sporting Club. A city of commerce, transport, and manufacture, Kolkata is the dominant urban centre of eastern India. The city was renamed, Kolkata in 2001. Formerly Calcutta, capital city of West Bengal, India, "Calcutta" redirects here. The south suburban areas like Maheshtala, Budge Budge, Rajpur Sonarpur, Baruipur etc. These sediments are sandwiched between two clay beds: the lower one at a depth of 250–650 m (820–2,130 ft); the upper one 10–40 m (30–130 ft) in thickness. The Calcutta High Court has jurisdiction over the state of West Bengal and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [228]:99[229] Group theatres of Kolkata, a cultural movement that started in the 1940s contrasting with the then-popular commercial theatres, are theatres that are not professional or commercial, and are centres of various experiments in theme, content, and production;[230] group theatres use the proscenium stage to highlight socially relevant messages. [62] The shelf and hinge zones have many faults, among them some are active. As of 2012[update], the All India Trinamool Congress controls the KMC; the mayor is Firhad Hakim, while the deputy mayor is Atin Ghosh. [48] Demands for the creation of a Muslim state led in 1946 to an episode of communal violence that killed over 4,000. Richard Wellesley, Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William between 1797 and 1805, was largely responsible for the development of the city and its public architecture. are also within the city of Kolkata (as a metropolitan structure). Park Street is best known for the Christmas and New Year parties where millions of city dwellers and tourists meet to celebrate the grandeur of the auspicious eves. The city is centred on the east bank of the Hugli (Hooghly) River, once the main channel of the Ganges (Ganga) River, about 96 miles (154 km) upstream from the head of the Bay of Bengal; there the port city developed as a point of transshipment from water to land and from river to sea. Suburbs of Kolkata include Haora (Howrah) on the west bank, Baranagar to the north, South Dum Dum to the northeast, Behala to the south, and Garden Reach in the southwest. Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman did his groundbreaking work in Raman effect in IACS. Fashioned by the colonial British in the manner of a grand European capital—yet now set in one of the poorest and most overpopulated regions of India—Kolkata has grown into a city of sharp contrasts and contradictions. [61] As with most of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the soil and water are predominantly alluvial in origin. [88][89] Severe air pollution in the city has caused a rise in pollution-related respiratory ailments, such as lung cancer. Though Bengali women traditionally wear the sari, the shalwar kameez and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women. Kolkata also houses the prestigious Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, which was started here in the year 2006. Filled with British architectural monuments, churches to city halls , Kolkata has everything to offer. The atmospheric pollution has greatly increased since the early 1950s. Reportedly, Science City is one of the most loved tourist places in Kolkata. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Most of this falls from June to September, the period of the monsoon. [74][75] Both Bidhannagar and New Town are situated outside the Kolkata Municipal Corporation limits, in their own municipalities. [133], As the seat of the Government of West Bengal, Kolkata is home to not only the offices of the local governing agencies, but also the West Bengal Legislative Assembly; the state secretariat, which is housed in the Writers' Building; and the Calcutta High Court. [224][225] Established in 1814 as the nation's oldest museum, the Indian Museum houses large collections that showcase Indian natural history and Indian art. of beds in districts of West Bengal as on 30.11.2011", "Waiting for health care: a survey of a public hospital in Kolkata", "Socio economic profile of patients in Kolkata: a case study of RG Kar and AMRI", Institute of Development Studies, Kolkata, "Kolkata woman gives birth on road, dies after no admission by hospitals", "KMC wins battle against malaria, dengue", "Act today to curb pollution, say docs – The Times of India", "Annual report of the Department of Higher Education 2009–2010", "BESU's bid for upgrade gets catalyst in Didi", "Universities with potential for excellence", "Q&A: Shekhar Chaudhury, director, IIM Calcutta", "NLUs, a preferred recruitment destination", "Some of the distinguished alumni of the University of Calcutta", "Calcutta: habitat of the Indian intellectual", "Presidency old-timers to relive days of canteen adda", "Bite missing from graffiti, the fun's gone from the elections", "Heritage buildings need restoration, not mere repairs", "Out of elite list, cradle of Bengal Renaissance falling apart", "How the past was salvaged by Swadeshi artists", "La globalisation du rock vue de Calcutta", "Development of freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation: a case study from Bangladesh", "Some images are synonymous with Kolkata", "Resurrected, the kathi roll: face-off resolved, Nizam's set to open with food court", "Kolkata's mind-boggling variety of street food", "Street food as yummy and cheap as it gets", "Areawise analysis for the period July/December 2007 to January – June 2010", "Business development mission to India 29 November – 5 December 2006", "CalTel launches IPTV in Kolkata, invests Rs 700 cr in 07-08", "Consolidated list of channels allowed to be carried by cable operators/ multi system operators/ DTH licensees in India", "Forget cricket, football is catching fast in India", "Mohun Bagan vs East Bengal: India's all-consuming rivalry", "Argentine football superstar Messi charms Kolkata", "Kolkata accounted for 45% of total attendance in FIFA U-17 World Cup: West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee", "Para cricket tourney gets off to a cracking start", "FIFA president visits big three of Kolkata maidan", "Royal Calcutta Turf Club in revival mode", "Kolkata watches as rugby legacy vanishes year after year", "A tale of two cities: Will Kolkata learn from her sister? [260][261][262] Bengali-language 24-hour television news channels include ABP Ananda, Tara Newz, Kolkata TV, 24 Ghanta and Kolkata TV. This city is exceptionally good for its music, literature, movies, culture, and food. [158] It spans the north–south length of the city. 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