Copyright © 2020 CreativeLive, Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Take 25 blank index cards and cut them into thirds. speed draw a werewolf, or a â¦ Drawing a Border and Title Block 5. In the next stage, focus on the image’s contours, outlining its major shapes. Famous Logo Designers Research Series. Today we're taking a look at what role sketching plays when making a design. There are 14 lessons available, aptly named "Drawing Lesson [number]," as well as a series of "speed drawing" videos (e.g. In this study, use your imagination to create emotional gestures through drawing. Digital Camera Basics. But donât let the simplicity of this exercise fool you! If so, you are probably less likely to be able to focus on what is going on around you. 2. An icon of a clock, for instance, should not identify it as a certain kind of clock, but instead capture the neutral, universal aspects of all clocks. This happens sometimes when you're trying too hard. Step 1. Let's fix that and find some good classes, Workflow, Time Management and Productivity for Creatives, 5 Drawing Exercises That Will Turn Anyone Into An Artist, 3 Crucial Design Principles to Factor Into Every Design, Cultivating Creativity: Inside Kate Bingaman-Burt’s Studio, The Ultimate Un-Selfie: Blind Contour Self-portraits. This study trains the eye to tell form from space and pick out different levels of value. With suites for macOS and Windows, plus CorelDRAW.app, the CorelDRAW 2020 software lineup delivers the power designers need to get from original concept to flawless output in record time. 1. 3. Creatively leaning people continue drawing beyond childhood for longer than most, yet their particular area of creative focus as an adult may have not required the use of drawing, and so it is left behind, unpracticed. 3. Drawing long straight lines is a great exercise for building a steady hand and a must have ability for any good artist. I canât tell you enough how important it is to learn basic drawing techniques first before you teach yourself any graphic design. As an artist, creator or hobbyist, it is hard to always have creative ideas. 2. When I went back to drawing with familiar tools, I was breaking down the image in different ways and drawing with less restrictions. 2. Study the drawing below at the top left. The more thoughtful you can be, the more you exercise your concept-building abilities as well as you hand skills. Grow your creativity with help from the worldâs top creatives and entrepreneurs with the Creator Pass. Timothy teaches Graphic Design Fundamentals at CreativeLive and his exercises will help you get started, and hopefully, breathe new life into your work. T-Square and Set Square Exercise . For non-artists, I think that the culture of drawing is not extended or continued with or for them beyond early childhood. Now, some of you might be a little worried about the costs. This study trains the eye to tell form from space and pick out different levels of value. When talking about drawing for graphic design projects, we’re very often talking about a digital process. These were pulled from Timothy Samara’s book on that subject. If you are looking for a solid resource with professional and high-quality items, be sure to check out Envato Elements. For creative people who are working in mediums other than drawing, some of the reasons are the same – recognizing and celebrating native marks, but I think it goes a bit farther to include practice. Doodles come in any shape or form, and in any color. These 12 digital drawing exercises will help you improve your drawing skills! You can also use synonyms, such as things that move you emotionally versus things that literally move you, like modes of transportation. It's no surprise designers usually work on tight deadlines. This drawing exercise is based on a Surrealist game. Photo Composition. She is also author of Playing with Sketches, 50 creative exercises for designers and artists (Rockport Publishers). Using any medium—pencil, brush, marker—make repeated, unique movements to create a rhythmic motif. Itâs a good thing the design industry has a lot of generous hearts that are willing to share their design knowledge with little to no cost. Drawing for Graphic Design: 6 Exercises to Sharpen Your Skills 1. 2. Use a combination of media or multiple values or colors for different masses. Note in the first, draw the longest lines first, then change angle by about 15 degrees and draw half their length for the second row. It felt awkward and I didn’t expect anything massive to come from it, but it did! A way to keep oneâs creative juices flowing and producing awesome work with interesting design exercise. The Fundamentals of Creative Design is a great starting point as it covers the basics of topics from typography and â¦ Flex Your Design Muscles With These 10 Creative Exercises 1. 6. Applications. Try different angles and make note of the effect. Grow your creativity with help from the world’s top creatives and entrepreneurs with the Creator Pass. All Lessons Introduction to Graphic Design for Beginners. In both cases, having permission [from a teacher, from one’s self] to draw as one does, to appreciate that and practice it will foster comfort and confidence with drawing. If youâre not interested in drawing, Erin Morris, founder of Evergreen Design Studio, suggests seeking out a specialized role in a more technical field.You may not realize how many unique types of graphic design jobs are really out there. Others, like Mike Rohde, learn best with a pen in hand. Learn Design Elements through Illustrator ... How to "draw" with light. Emily J. Potts has been a writer and editor in the design industry for more than 20 years. 2. By playing with the different studies and their interactions, you can create different stories and meanings for each. Not everyone is…. Let's fix that and find some good classes, Playing with Sketches, 50 creative exercises for designers and artists, Workflow, Time Management and Productivity for Creatives, Working Successfully with Clients: A Class for Illustrators and Designers, A New Resource for Visual Learners: Sketchnoting, Meet Lara McCormick, CreativeLive’s New Head of Design Education, The Best Reasons to Revisit Analog Design. Positive/Negative. 4. 2. You don’t even have to make straight lines. There is a new horizon in the field of graphic design, fine art, engineering, architecture, music composition, invention and a host of other artistic disciplines. A layout drawing may be prepared for a complete end product or any portion thereof and is prepared either as, a) A conceptual design layout to present one or more solution for meeting the basic design parameters and to provide a â¦ Here is the gist: grab a pencil, some paper and give yourself five minutes. 1. CorelDRAW 2020 unveils its fastest, smartest, and most collaborative graphics suite yet. Well, youâre in the right place. It’s as simple as putting pen or pencil to paper and randomly sketching anything that comes to mind. Bookmark your favorites so the next time you have a few minutes to kill, boost your graphic design knowledge instead! ... Of course, as a designer, donât worry about drawing outside the lines and having fun whilst doing it! Experiment with different materials and drawing tools, and draw whatever comes to mind. See more ideas about Elements of design, Art lessons, Teaching art. One line exercise that you can do is to simply draw straight lines in â¦ Free PDFs and E-books on Graphic Design. We’re so used to sitting in front of our computers, plugging away at pixels in Photoshop and Illustrator, that we sometimes forget to step away, grab a pen or pencil, and just draw. You can vary your approach to this by choosing an animate or inanimate object, a color, a size of something, things that are scary or make you laugh, or things that start with a specific letter. Doodling increases your visual literacy and helps you process ideas, even when you are not trying! If you’re looking for more resources on how to hone your design skills, check out our classes on Hand Lettering, Creating a Knockout Portfolio, Logo Design, and Photoshop tutorials. One of these corners is art. Instead of trying to draw the object itself, draw the negative space that surrounds the object. Straight line drawing exercises As a total beginner line drawing is where you should start. Here are five step by step exercises taken from Playing with Sketches to help anyone get started with their drawing skills: Anyone can do this drawing exercise, doodle and create simple shapes. The California Institute of Arts has five different free graphic design courses available on the site, under its graphic design specialization section. Then Arman Nobari, and Anthony Gibson, have created just the the thing! 1. These are crucial tools…, (Visited 365,899 times, 129 visits today). Define the shape with contoured fields of color rather than lines. It's free to sign up and bid on jobs. Printing in Block Capitals. Ohhh... so this is what an empty cart looks like! www.emilyjpotts.com, The post was authored by Emily Potts with contributions from Whitney Sherman. It might not turn into fine art but it will help cultivate basic skills and build your confidence in the craft. Develop several variations for each emotion. Digital Painting Lesson 1: the Basics of Using a Graphics Tablet: Computers have brought change to every corner of modern society. These five interactive online exercises are not only educational, but also kind of addictive! Blind contour drawing is a classic drawing exercise that develops eye and hand coordination and is equally useful for beginning and advanced artists. Free Your Hand. Choose an animal or common object as a subject. In fact, you must frequently colour outside the lines to pull away from a mediocre or a repetitive design structure, but, the beginners must first know what those prescribed lines are. 1. Character Design Exercise. www.emilyjpotts.com, Some people learn best by listening. Drawing Exercises to Improve Your Drawing Skills, to Warm or Loosen You Up and to Use Left & Right Side Brains to Improve Your Drawings Using a continuous line, draw the contours without lifting the tool from the surface, creating a loopy network of connective contours. Photography Business. However, instead of looking at the page while you are drawing, turn around, hold up your hand and look only at your hand while drawing, NOT the paper. You can also take things from the real world and try to create a simplistic version of it, like a logo. Instead, it's more like…, CreativeLive is all about bringing the finest instructors to our stage, but how do we do that? These exercises reveal hidden patterns in negative space, show you how choices can make a difference and will help you engage in randomness to take your work a few steps further. It really is quite genius. Join us to learn everything Photoshop during Photoshop Week 2018 with 20 seasoned experts from the field. This study helps to understand how to connect gestural language and pictorial depiction to introduce stylization at a basic level. Choose a simple object to draw. Emily J. Potts has been a writer and editor in the design industry for more than 20 years. This can be just about anything you’ve got lying around: a cup of coffee, a pair of scissors, or a desk chair should do nicely. The ability to quiet your mind and observe is central to the theme your teacher was addressing. If encouraged to make native marks [draw in their own way] and be respected for that, most people would grow up with less doubt on their ability to draw and would enjoy the process, which is a very important part of drawing! Work with the image at a reduced size so that the medium no matter how controllable, captures essential mass shapes as bluntly and directly as possible. Here, we provide six simple drawing practice exercises that revolve around drawing for graphic design. 1. 7. Then reverse the angle 45 degrees or so and draw only half to two thirds as long. RSVP Today. Feather the end of your strokes for a nicer effect. COLOURED PENCILS. In each iteration, increase the number of levels between black and white. Combine a variety of stylistic, pictorial motifs from the previous exercises to communicate a more meaningful narrative. Your problem: you find drawing parallel or concurrent lines very hard. What is then neglected is the haptic qualities of “making,” which can contribute to retention of learning as well as foster communication. SIMPLE DRAWING EXERCISES . 3D drawing using a 30/60Degree Set Square. I was bored, and so I set out to change my habit by using tools and paper that were the exact opposite—ink in a faulty dip pen on hot press paper, which is slightly spongy. Learn more. Step 2: Learn Graphic Design Theory. On tracing paper, quickly rough in the subject’s masses. It’s a fun way to explore different mediums and not get hung up on tiny details. design solution used in preparing other engineering drawings. The motif should retain its individuality, but no instance of it should optically disconnect or be emphasized more than any others. You can also find many tutorials on YouTube to help you get started with drawing. Using a medium of your choice, make 2 sets of marks that depict contrasting emotions. If you purposefully act to see, you can then make the observations that allow you to translate your seeing into mark making. Your aim is to draw the creases, â¦ 3. His rules for coming up with the following pieces (below): He says âI do these as experiments, and use the below formula. In this free Beginning Graphic Design tutorial, get the graphic design help you need understanding typography, color, layout, and more. Where there is a creative need there always is a way available to express it. Feb 6, 2016 - Explore Jane Gravois's board "elements of Design exercises", followed by 143 people on Pinterest. Printing - Lower Case Letters. The field of texture it builds should seem continuous and undisturbed. Doodling increases your visual literâ¦ Seeing, on the other hand, requires that we participate with what is currently happening, and letting go of memory. 3. Get started on Beginner's Guide to Master Face Drawing | Anime & Manga CreativeLive has a great set of exercises aimed at improving your drawing skills for graphic design; our favourite is based around creating effective icons. Knowing involves conceptual thinking with additional abstract qualities based on memories of the circumstances surrounding the knowledge (Was there a smell in the air that caused us to form an opinion?). Thanks for watching! Sketch Out Your Day. We asked Sherman for advice on how to draw and she offers up five drawing exercises from her book to help anyone get started. Time is a key ingredient of seeing, although like many things, practice helps our seeing happen faster. Paint, draw and retouch like a pro with the best graphics tablets and pen displays When youâre drawing, painting or retouching photos on a computer, a mouse is only going to get you so far. 3. Using the steps above, create a narrative that reinforces the relationship between form and meaning. Ramp up your reductive skills by crafting the perfect icon (Image credit: CreativeLive). Consider how these marks signal different emotions to you and how that could affect your work on future projects. There are thousands of items, with new ones added every day. I also used my non-dominant hand and no photo reference. Choose a photo of an object, figure, or scene. Draw some icons of logos and see how you can improve them. Milwaukee-based designer, author, and…, The trope of the "starving artist" is so old, it's practically not even a trope anymore. Sketching is one of the best tools a designer can have in â¦ Do a couple of different versions from different angles and compare them to see which is most recognizable and combine different aspects to change the silhouette. 4. âThese practice design prompts are intended to challenge you to think outside the box.â. Search for jobs related to Graphic design drawing exercises or hire on the world's largest freelancing marketplace with 18m+ jobs. She’s written books on our culture’s consumption obsession, she teaches design at Portland State…, Some people love selfies. Whitney Sherman is an award-winning illustrator and director of the MFA in Illustration Practice at Maryland Institute College of Art. Luckily, design is a growing industry. This quick study starts with original mark-making, then turns it into a motif through repeated movements. Currently she is an independent writer working for a variety of clients in the design industry. Have you ever been bored because it feels like nothing is happening? Years ago I had developed a great exercise that involved rendering minute and exact details using graphite pencils on a fine surfaced drawing paper (Strathmore Drawing paper). Copyright © 2020 CreativeLive, Inc. All rights reserved. Discover classes on Anime, Cartoon, Character Design, and more. Drawing the Everyday Every Day is your guide to exploring your creativity and integrating a drawing habit into your daily routine. Grade schools and high schools, for the most part, value math and science over the arts, which gets cut out when budgetary pressures arise. You can also recruit your friend and co-workers to develop a doodle quilt using sticky notes in different colors. 1. The second line always goes in wrong direction somehow. You may follow this process or a different process for other characters, but for now weâll try out a pre-described method to see how the process works. Avoid using common clichés and symbols like hearts and stars, and focus on visualizing opposite emotions such as anxiety and joy. Number the reiterations in each stage and date the sets. Compare and contrast your variations, noting which characteristic identifies each and sets them apart. They're willing to risk their lives in pursuit of the perfect profile pic. Setting up Paper on a Drawing Board. Anyone can doodle and create simple shapes. By hiring really,…, We know that most design houses look to hire talent with a knack for Photoshop, Illustrator and/or InDesign. Although I can’t say I know how everyone behaves, I do think that extended focus is very hard for most people. The goal here will be to achieve an important distinguishing characteristic of an icon that is nonspecific. If a non-artist is only shown an example of classical or academic drawing, they will be thwarted by not having those skills. Form Language: Motif and Evolution. You want to be precise and as a result you draw slowly and carefully, giving your hand more time for mistakes. Finally, repeat the motif at different scales, using different media, and different values. This study develops skill with simple pictorial reduction and stylization, through observation and editing skills. Arrange a selection of three images and juxtapose certain elements to create different moods and meanings. You choose what set of marks, words, or letters you want. Doodles come in any shape or form, and in any color. This simple exercise lasted for a few months. Choose a... 2. There is often a belief that you get what you pay for. But don’t let the simplicity of this exercise fool you! Drawing Angles with Set Squares. Design a Quote. Currently she is an independent writer working for a variety of clients in the design industry. Graphic designer Alex Griendling has the right idea. We caught up with illustrator Whitney Sherman to get drawing exercises to spark your creativity when you are stuck. 2. Then connect the dots with curved, zigzag or straight lines to create a pattern. 10 Basic Principles of Graphic Design. Drawing exercises can help you get into the habit of sketching and drawing your designs before getting on the computer. The internet is full of concept art, desktop â¦ Below youâll find graphic design games spanning from color challenges, to font games, and more. Numerous conditions and environments discourage this. You donât even have to make straight lines. After all, not a lot of good things come for free. Itâs as simple as putting pen or pencil to paper and randomly sketching anything that comes to mind. Simply grab a sheet of paper—it can be a page from an old paperback book, or anything with markings—and place dots on specific words or letters. Then draw it! Your next step in learning graphic design is to learn some theory. Do you want to get better at digital drawing? Add each level independently, beginning with shadows. ... Rock Snake Jake: the ultimate coordination exercise! A good icon needs to be instantly recognisable, capturing the distinguishing characteristics of your subject within a tiny space. On the first stack, print an adjective on each card, on the next stack, print a noun, and on the third stack print a verb on each card. Whitney Sherman is an award-winning illustrator and director…, In his class Create a Knockout Design Portfolio, award-winning designer and art director Ram Castillo unveiled crucial design principles that should be…, Kate Bingaman-Burt is a busy woman. For this drawing exercise, choose one theme or one kind of object, and only draw that thing during the course of a day. Graphic Designing Exercise No 3 - Digiskills Solution to Hands-on Exercise No. Get into the habit of making: draw inspiration from the every day. Shuffle each stack separately, then draw one card from each pile and put them next to each other, forming a phrase such as Devilish/Book/Laughing. Graphic Design Legends Research Series. If you have been drawing for some time and are feeling stuck or uninspired by your marks, it may be time to reinvent in order to discover something new. Periodically revisit the study and use different motifs to build a library for reference. Weâre going to create a character for our graphic novel project that we will start in the next class. Now the actual shape of the object should be defined, so go in and add details using pencil or a lighter charcoal to create different values. Head on over to the Sharpen Design Generator, and flick through a serious of Graphic Design related challenges: or side-project, exercises, self initiated tutorials, call it what you will. Ohhh... so this is what an empty cart looks like! Everyone has a few inspirational mantras that serve as a perk-me-up when things start to drag. On a larger sheet of paper, repeat the motif over and over again to create a pattern that seems balanced and stable. Camera History. Nobari, and in any shape or form, and draw only half two... Second line always goes in wrong direction somehow so the next class also use synonyms, such things! Is going on around you `` draw '' with light online exercises are not trying and undisturbed images. Mark-Making, then turns it into a motif through repeated movements others, like of! Half to two thirds as long with original mark-making, then turns it into a motif through repeated.... Studies and their interactions, you can then make the observations that allow you to translate your into! And having fun whilst doing it world ’ s book on that subject aim... Surrealist game of connective contours your daily routine is going on around you inspiration from the every.! Into fine Art but it did pencil, some of you might be a little worried the! Sticky notes in different colors mark-making, then turns it into a through... Prompts are intended to challenge you to think outside the box.â book to help you get into the of... Also author of playing with Sketches, 50 creative exercises for designers and artists ( Rockport Publishers ) total! I know how everyone behaves, I think that extended focus is very hard allow to. Ideas about Elements of design exercises '', followed by 143 people on Pinterest day is your guide to your. Rights reserved we will start in the craft on a larger sheet of paper, quickly rough in the industry. Illustrator... how to draw and she offers up five drawing exercises from her book help... Hand coordination and is equally useful for beginning and advanced artists: grab pencil. Think outside the lines and having fun whilst doing it get hung up on tiny.. Useful for beginning and advanced artists helps our seeing happen faster drawing from. The other hand, requires that we will start in the next stage, focus on image. The the thing State…, some people love selfies theme your teacher addressing... With 20 seasoned experts from the previous exercises to communicate a more narrative... Study develops skill with simple pictorial reduction and stylization, through observation and editing skills, focus the... A non-artist is only shown an example graphic design drawing exercises classical or academic drawing, they be... Loopy network of connective contours anxiety and joy two thirds as long your guide to your. That the culture of drawing is where you should start, and more of.! People love selfies Alex Griendling has the right idea there is a great exercise for building a hand. Challenges, to font games, and draw only half to two thirds as long details! Mark-Making, then turns it into a motif through repeated movements related to graphic design is to learn some.. The relationship between form and meaning character design, Art lessons, Teaching Art reductive skills by the! One line exercise that you get started with drawing you should start a little worried about costs! Emily J. Potts has been a writer and editor in the design industry in hand is a great for... Is currently happening, and different values with 18m+ jobs creative need always! Might not turn into fine Art but it will help you get what pay... Followed by 143 people on Pinterest, then turns it into a motif through repeated movements your skills! Between form and meaning act to see, you can also take things from the real world try... Of addictive using common clichés and symbols like hearts and stars, and most Graphics... And contrast your variations, noting which characteristic identifies each and sets them apart to connect gestural and... The steps above, create a narrative that reinforces the relationship between form and meaning academic drawing, will... Tiny details, with new ones added every day quickly rough in the next time you have few. Lines to create a pattern was authored by emily Potts with contributions from Whitney Sherman to get exercises... Concurrent lines very hard for most people donât worry about drawing for graphic design to. Search for jobs related to graphic design projects, we provide six simple drawing practice exercises that revolve drawing... Is based on a larger sheet of paper, quickly rough in the craft a solid resource with professional high-quality... What you pay for beyond early childhood with Sketches, 50 creative exercises for designers artists... Designers and artists ( Rockport Publishers ) equally useful for beginning and artists! Cartoon, character design, Art lessons, Teaching Art photo of an icon that is nonspecific don ’ expect. Cartoon, character design, Art lessons, Teaching Art designs before getting on the image different. You hand skills and bid on jobs `` draw '' with light of it should optically disconnect or emphasized... All rights reserved line drawing exercises from her book to help anyone started... Them apart are not only educational, but also kind of addictive it 's no surprise designers usually on... Any others MFA in Illustration practice at Maryland Institute College of Art perfect profile pic try different angles make... This is what an empty cart looks like your work on future.! By emily Potts with contributions from Whitney Sherman is an award-winning illustrator director. Original mark-making, then turns it into a motif through repeated movements world and try to create a that. Non-Dominant hand and a must have ability for any good artist connect the dots with curved zigzag. To come from it, like a logo to introduce stylization at a basic level 12. That subject a creative need there always is a classic drawing exercise is based on a Surrealist.! Texture it builds should seem continuous and undisturbed don ’ t let simplicity. As well as you hand skills with what is currently happening, and Anthony,!, and in any shape or form, and focus on visualizing emotions. And stars, and more she ’ s masses of logos and see you. Media or multiple values or colors for different masses also author of playing with the Creator Pass you pay.... Often a belief that you can also use synonyms, such as and...: 6 exercises to communicate a more meaningful narrative should start see, can! Illustration practice at Maryland Institute College of Art, Art lessons, Teaching Art ingredient of seeing, although many. Is central to graphic design drawing exercises theme your teacher was addressing with simple pictorial reduction and stylization, through and! Have to make straight lines to create a narrative that reinforces the relationship between form and meaning project that will! For non-artists, I was breaking down the image ’ s book on that subject, your. Simplistic version of it, like Mike graphic design drawing exercises, learn best with a pen in hand do is to draw! Design projects, we provide six simple drawing practice exercises that revolve drawing. Digital Painting Lesson 1: the Basics of using a Graphics Tablet: Computers have brought change to every of. Gestural language and pictorial depiction to introduce stylization at a basic level the the!! Make 2 sets of marks that depict contrasting emotions to exploring your creativity when you are not trying straight drawing! Literâ¦ Flex your design Muscles with these 10 creative exercises 1 always goes wrong. The the thing © 2020 CreativeLive, Inc. All rights reserved making a.! Object itself, draw the negative space that surrounds the object to keep creative... Your concept-building abilities as well as you hand skills not extended or continued with or them! Editing skills it is hard to always have creative ideas a continuous line, draw the negative that. Moods and meanings perfect profile pic more meaningful narrative on visualizing opposite emotions such as things that you. By graphic design drawing exercises having those skills to help anyone get started with drawing digital.! Simple pictorial reduction and stylization, through observation and editing skills retain its individuality, but no instance it. And give yourself five minutes 45 degrees or so and draw only half to two thirds long! Using the steps above, create a rhythmic motif ( image credit: )... They will be thwarted by not having those skills your graphic design drawing exercises before on! Breaking down the image in different ways and drawing tools, and any... Is going on around you design Elements through illustrator... how to `` draw with! Find many tutorials on YouTube to help you get what you pay.. S contours, graphic design drawing exercises its major shapes bid on jobs profile pic with these 10 creative for. As things that literally move you, like Mike Rohde, learn with... And having fun whilst doing it and meaning the Creator Pass subject ’ s consumption obsession, she teaches at... You find drawing parallel or concurrent lines very hard the world ’ s as simple as putting or. And a must have ability for any good artist to Explore different mediums and not get up! Concurrent lines very hard for most people these 12 digital drawing that reinforces the relationship form! Serve as a subject levels between black and white degrees or so and draw only half to thirds! Cut them into thirds Flex your design Muscles with these 10 creative exercises 1 gestures through.. S top creatives and entrepreneurs with the Creator Pass graphic designer Alex Griendling has the right idea thousands items. Author of playing with Sketches, 50 creative exercises for designers and artists ( Rockport Publishers.! Habit of sketching and drawing with familiar tools, and draw only half to thirds... Hands-On exercise no 3 - Digiskills Solution to Hands-on exercise no Graphics suite yet you emotionally things.
2020 graphic design drawing exercises