1400)-language text, Articles needing additional references from December 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, ÐÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÑÑÐºÐ°Ñ (ÑÐ°ÑÐ°ÑÐºÐµÐ²ÑÑÐ°)â, Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, All Iberian territories taken by Christian kingdoms of, 711: The invasion of Christian Visigothic-ruled Hispania by Islamic Arab-Berber armies of the, 742: Berber garrisons give up their positions north of the, 809: The Carolingians fail to take and hold, 1118: Navarro-Aragonese troops capture the Muslim strongholds of. Alfonso's son Fruela married Munia, a Basque from Ãlava, after crushing a Basque uprising (probably resistance). Around the 14th and 15th centuries heavy cavalry gained a predominant role, including knights wearing full plate armor. Royal knights were mainly nobles with a close relationship with the king, and thus claimed a direct Gothic inheritance. After several campaigns, the Portuguese part in the Reconquista came to an end with the definitive capture of the Algarve in 1249. The most important towns of medieval Hispania had fueros, or forais. Following the Navarrese tradition, on his death in 1064 he divided his kingdom between his sons. Exported pottery has been found in southern France, Sardinia, Sicily, and Africa; and Greek imports were frequent. 1 ‘Those same cursed Saracens’: Charlemagne’s campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula as religious warfare Samuel Ottewill-Soulsby* Sidney Sussex College, Sidney Street, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB2 3HU, United Kingdom (Received 13 February 2015; Accepted 16 May 2015) While it is well known that many of Charlemagne’s wars had a strong religious element, Al-MasÄq 30:1. He took all the military, religious, and political power and reorganised the army and the bureaucracy. Fueros were used even south of the Central Range. The Spanish sent expeditions from New Spain (Mexico) to conquer and Christianize the Philippines, then a territory of the Sultanate of Brunei. Some Muslim kings had Christian-born wives or mothers. Sancho RamÃrez gained international recognition for Aragon, uniting it with Navarre and expanding the borders south, conquering Wasqat Huesca deep in the valleys in 1096 and building a fort, El Castellar, 25 km from Saraqustat Zaragoza. The War of Religion in the Empire has ended in victory for the Catholic League. The population of the mountain region consisted of native Astures, Galicians, Cantabri, Basques and other groups unassimilated into Hispano-Gothic society, laying the foundations for the Kingdom of Asturias and starting the Astur-Leonese dynasty that spanned from 718 to 1037 and led the initial efforts in the Iberian peninsula to take back the territories then ruled by the Moors. During the reign of King Alfonso II (791â842), the kingdom was firmly established, and a series of Muslim raids caused the transfer of the Asturian capital to Oviedo. The region eventually emerges unified, and by the end of the sixteenth century is a major international power. In the High Middle Ages, the fight against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula became linked to the fight of the whole of Christendom. After this battle, when the Caliph barely escaped with his guard and the rest of the army was destroyed, King Ramiro obtained 12 years of peace, but he had to give GonzÃ¡lez the independence of Castile as payment for his help in the battle. , It comes then as no surprise that, besides focusing on raiding the Arab-Berber strongholds of the Meseta, Alphonse I centred on expanding his domains at the expense of the neighbouring Galicians and Basques at either side of his realm just as much. The Iberian peninsula is mostly under christianity. By 1252 only the Kingdom of Granada remained intact but as a vassal state of Castile. In the early Eighth Century, the Umayyad Caliphate began an invasion of Christian Iberia. 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